NSUN network for mental health is an independent, service-user-led charity that connects people with experience of mental health issues to give us a stronger voice in shaping policy and services.

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CPA and Recovery report

Service users' experiences of recovery under the 2008 Care Programme Approach

This study was set up by the Mental Health Foundation, in partnership with NSUN, and was conducted by Dorothy Gould, the project lead, and Sarah Yiannoullou, NSUN’s Managing Director. The study explored how effective service users find the Care Programme Approach in promoting recovery as they understand it.

Study participants were service users and survivors of 18 and above who have experienced the Care Programme Approach since October 2008 and who live in a London borough. (The funding is for London.)

The study demonstrates that, whilst service users hold some positive views about the 2008 Care Programme Approach, they also think that significant improvements are needed if they are to recover. They are concerned about differences between service users' and professionals' ideas of recovery. They are disappointed,too, with the type of service provision on offer, with the disadvantages which service users from marginalised communities often face, with the involvement which service users have in their care plans and in strategic decisions and with unresolved differences between their concepts of recovery and the compulsory powers of the Mental Health Act 2007.

You can download the full report or the summary report.

You can also download a pdf of the Checklist of Good Practice.

Dorothy Gould has also produced a Checklist for General Practitioners.

Please contact us for a hard copy of the full report .

Telephone 020 7820 8982 or email info@nsun.org.uk.


Press release

Service users want better quality help from recovery services provided under the 2008 Care Programme Approach

  • Service users think that some fundamental changes are needed in the cultures and practices of mental health organisations
  • They particularly want improved services if they belong to marginalised communities

11th February 2013:  Today the Mental Health Foundation, in partnership with the NSUN network for mental health, is launching a new report which highlights the fact that significant changes are still needed if the Care Programme Approach is to be effective in supporting mental health service users with recovery.

The Care Programme Approach was introduced in 1990 because of the closure of long-stay psychiatric services. It is a government measure designed to ensure that community mental health services work well for service users. The most recent form of the Approach dates from 2008 and is intended to provide support for mental health service users who have wide-ranging needs, or are particularly at risk. It is especially important, therefore, that services provided under this Approach are of high quality.

The study took place between September 2011 and late February 2012 as a result of service users’ concerns about the support that they were receiving under the Care Programme Approach. The two researchers had personal experience of using mental health services and the 81 research participants were all people who had received services under the 2008 Care Programme Approach since its launch.  The study explores how effective service users find the Approach in promoting recovery as they understand it, what recommendations they have about recovery services provided through the Approach and what they think should be included in a checklist of good practice for mental health professionals.

Key points made about services provided under the 2008 Care Programme Approach included

  • Recovery means different things to different service users and this needs taking fully into account. Services are patchy in this respect
  • Service users who may face particular disadvantages in society often receive less helpful approaches and services.  Both African and African Caribbean participants and  female participants spoke with especial concern about this
  • It is not helpful if medical diagnoses are the only explanations of mental distress which are provided, but this is too often the case
  • Service users want warm, human qualities from mental health professionals to have at least as much focus as actual services and for there to be an increased move away from purely medical approaches to whole-person approaches
  • Whilst it is important to service users to feel safe, services can be too bound up with risk issues. Other important aspects of people’s lives are then overlooked
  • Most participants who had been treated compulsorily under the Mental Health Act 2007 found that it had a negative effect on their recovery and that there was a tension between such powers and government emphases on choice and empowerment
  •  Participants wanted to be more involved in their care plans and, frequently, to influence strategic decisions about services as well
  • Shortfalls in staffing and funding need addressing if the 2008 Care Programme Approach is to work well for service users.

Dorothy Gould, Project Lead says:

‘This study shows that there is still a long way to go before people who draw on the 2008 Care Programme Approach find  recovery services effective. Good practice seems to be selective rather than the norm, still more so in the case of service users from marginalised communities. Whether the Approach, in its current form, is capable of altering the situation might itself be debated. Unless and until there is significant change, however, mental health service users will continue not infrequently to feel let down by the services on offer to them’.    

Eva Cyhlarova, Head of Research at the Mental Health Foundation says:

The results of this project illustrate that services provided under the 2008 Care Programme Approach do not adequately reflect service users’ concepts of recovery. Until service users’ views are fully taken into account and an holistic approach becomes the norm, it will continue to be difficult for people to achieve recovery. We hope that our research and recommendations will help mental health professionals address this issue and allow people with mental health problems to receive the support that meets their needs’.

Sarah Yiannoullou from NSUN says:

The Care Programme Approach (CPA) process should be an holistic approach that aids recovery. It should be used as effectively as possible to support this journey and help people to explore coping strategies and types of appropriate support and to think about their dreams and ambitions. This service user led research report highlights the importance of basic rights and values throughout the process and most importantly it emphasises the need to draw on an individual’s perception and description of recovery if the CPA is to promote it’.


About the Mental Health Foundation

The Mental Health Foundation is a UK-wide charity that carries out research, campaigns for better mental health services, and works to raise awareness of all mental health issues to help us all lead mentally healthier lives. Registered Charity Nos: (England & Wales) 801130: (Scotland) SC 039714.



About NSUN network for mental health

NSUN network for mental health is an independent, service-user-led charity that connects people with experience of mental health issues to give us a stronger voice in shaping policy and services. Registered Charity No: 1135980